Chromosome Painting is the most modern and novel technique for directly identifying several gene sequences simultaneously in the chromosome, with the aid of specific probes in molecular hybridization. Its resolution ranges from single copy to entire genome sequences. It is now applied in plant, animal, and human systems, in gene mapping, identification of genetic disorders, evolutionary studies, and gene transfer experiments. This treatise is the first of its kind to cover the technique with all its modifications and applications. It is designed for regular use by postgraduate students and research workers in cell and molecular genetics, plant and animal sciences, agriculture, medicine, and phylogenetic studies.