Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit - The Bilingualism Controversy
It is difficult to study the cognitive implications of bilingualism because of the diversity of experiences and political contexts with which it is intertwined. Moreover, bilingualism itself is not a single thing: individuals speak languages that they learned at different stages of their lives, to different degrees of pro- ciency, for different purposes, and all these factors are relevant in determining the consequence of bilingualism on cognition.To begin to disentangle some of these issues, the present chapter reports the results of experiments that have held constant variations in language proficiency, contexts, and social factors that affect performance.Thus, only a small portion of the enormity that is bilingu- ism is included, but controlled research allows its outcomes to be understood clearly and generalized reliably, at least initially to the limited sector of bil- gualism on which the research is based. Two central features of language and cognitive processing in bilinguals are responsible for all the outcomes observed in these studies.First, when a fluent bilingual is using one of the two languages, the other language is active and available (Chee 2006; Crinion et al. 2006; Dijkstra, Grainger, & van Heuven, 1999; Hernandez, Bates, & Avila 1996; Kaushanskaya & Marian 2007; Kroll, Bobb, & Wodniecka 2006; Marian, Spivey, & Hirsch 2003; Rodriguez-Fornells
Zweisprachigkeit: Nutzen oder Nachteil?