Leading researchers comprehensively describe the exciting methodologies that are accelerating progress in chemoprevention and review the state of clinical development of preventive agents in the major human cancer target organs. The authors provide sound guidelines for cancer chemopreventive drug development, detailing general strategies and methods for drug discovery, preclinical efficacy, characterization of precancers, safety evaluation of clinical cohorts, and clinical trial design. The emphasis is on documenting the characterization and application of reliable biomarkers during chemopreventive drug development. Highlights include an elegant approach to identifying chemopreventive agents in natural products, the development of preclinical models for evaluating potential chemopreventive agents, the genomics and proteomics of potential applications, and approaches for determining which populations will likely benefit from chemopreventive intervention. A companion volume, Promising Cancer Chemopreventive Agents, comprehensively surveys those agents that have promise, or have already been successfully used, to treat precancerous conditions or inhibit carcinogenesis.