Clement V, the first 'Avignon' pope, led the Church during nine critical years, 1305-14. Elected two years after the outrage committed upon Boniface VIII at Anagni, Clement saw as his main goal the restoration of harmonious relations with the leading monarchs of Christendom. In achieving his aim, he paved the way for the Church in the modern period. This book provides the first complete analysis of Clement's pontificate from the two complementary viewpoints offered by diplomatic documentation and by narrative sources. Their point of convergence validates a re-evaluation of the Avignon 'Babylonian captivity' of the papacy. As a result, Clement's pontificate no longer appears as a shameful surrender to Capetian interests. Rather, it demonstrates a consistent scale of priorities, among which the recovery of the Holy Land was accorded pre-eminence.