This book evaluates the effectiveness of prenatal care interventions and provides a framework for prenatal care that looks beyond the limited perspective of immediate neonatal outcomes. Ultimately, this book seeks to improve the content and the implementation of prenatal care by shifting the focus away from short-term technocentric medical advances to concentrate on the broader public health issues. A unique aspect of this book is its focus on the effectiveness of prenatal care interventions on longer-term benefits for women and children's health. Traditional medical interventions, as well as social support and behavioral interventions during prenatal care are reviewed. Effectiveness is considered within the context of its implications for public policy and service delivery. This book is an important resource for maternal and child health professionals, policy makers and health care managers because it provides evidence of the prenatal care services that improve the long-term health of women and children.