Logica Universalis (or Universal Logic, Logique Universelle, Universelle Logik,in vernacular languages) is not a new logic, but a general theory of logics, considered asmathematicalstructures.Thenamewasintroducedabouttenyearsago,butthe subject is as old as the beginning of modern logic: Alfred Tarski and other Polish logicianssuchasAdolf Lindenbaumdevelopedageneraltheoryoflogicsatthe end of the 1920s based on consequence operations and logical matrices. Talking about thepapersofTarskidealingwiththistopic,JohnEtchemendysays:“Whatismost strikingabouttheseearlypapers,especiallyagainsttheirhistoricalbackdrop,isthe extraordinary generality and abstractness of the perspective adopted” . After thesecondworldwar,thislineofworkwaspursuedmainlyinPolandandbecamea bit of an esoteric subject. Jerzy Lo ´ s’s fundamental monograph on logical matrices was never translated in English and the work of Roman Suszko on abstract logics remained unknown outside of Poland during many years. Things startedto changeduring the 1980s.Logic,which hadbeen dominated during many years by someproblems relatedto the foundations of mathematics or other metaphysicalquestions, was back to reality. Under the impulsion of arti?cial intelligence, computer science and cognitive sciences, new logical systems were created to give an account to the variety of reasonings of everyday life and to build machines, robots, programs that can act e?ciently in di?cult situations, for example that can smoothly process inconsistent and incomplete information. John McCarthy launched non-monotonic logic, few years later Jean-Yves Girard gavebirth to linear logic.Logicswereproliferating:each daya new logicwasborn. By the mid eighties, there were more logics on earth than atoms in the universe.
Second, revised edition of the first collection of articles around the topic of universal logicStarting point of interdisciplinary research in the fields of, e.g., logic, linguistic, philosophy, mathematics, computer science