Charts Western influence and national development. Beginning with the mid-19th century, when China encountered the West and began to enter the modern age, this encyclopedia offers an overview of the world's largest and most populous nation. The coverage includes not only major political topics, but also surveys the arts, business, literature, education, journalism, and all other major aspects of the nation's social, cultural, and economic life. The encyclopedia also offers significant material on such often neglected subjects as women and minorities, modern drama, Sino-French War, the federalist movement, overseas Chinese, Mongolian independence, and more. Special emphasis throughout is on the dramatic changes that have taken place in the country since the end of World War II. Provides an overview of the modern era. The entries are written by China specialists, who are thoroughly familiar with every aspect of the nation and its peoples. While history predominates, the articles cover all academic fields and include considerable material on recent decades as well as on earlier periods. There are entries on national political leaders and key thinkers, major events and trends in the nation's history, institutions, organizations, and currents of thought that led to the emergence of the modern nation. The encyclopedia's longer essays offer detailed and insightful surveys of censorship, important eras, literary movements, powerful social groups, anti-imperialism campaigns, Five Year Plans, the Sino-Vietnamese War, economic breakthroughs, and other vital topics. The coverage is informed by a thorough exploration of the historical role of Chinese nationalism, a potent force that was shaped by the need to retain national unity and independence under foreign assault.