The chemistry, structure and biological importance of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) are thoroughly discussed in this volume, which covers a wide scope of topics relevant to the field of calcium phosphates in general. The first chapter reviews the structures of OCP and other important calcium phosphates. It is followed by a description of the mimicry of OCP growth in vivo using in vitro model systems and an extensive review of OCP in biological systems. The remarkable ability of OCP to incorporate biologically relevant organic carboxylates into its structure is also discussed, along with the solubility and surface properties of calcium phosphate salts, and amorphous calcium phosphate and its relationship to OCP. The last chapter centers on the emerging technology of calcium phosphate cements as bone defect repair materials. The book provides in-depth, up-to-date information to all scientists studying calcium phosphate chemistry, biomineralization, pathological calcification, dental caries, biomaterials, and recovery of environmental phosphorus.