Paradiplomacy as a Diplomatic Broker
Since the publication of Der Derian’s seminal work On Diplomacy, diplomacy has been thought of as the mediation of estrangement between separated individuals, groups or political entities. In Paradiplomacy as a Diplomatic Broker, Manuel Duran focuses on paradiplomacy, the diplomatic practices of sub-state entities. He presents paradiplomacy as a specific site of diplomatic mediation, striking a middle ground between “realist” power play and the humanist need to connect to and engage with others. Indeed, the mediating of estrangement can be situated between both extremes of a continuum, with on the one hand absolute humanist diplomacy, aimed at rescinding all forms of separation between peoples, and on the other hand absolute power play diplomacy, maximizing these differences.