Quantum Dynamical Semigroups and Applications
In this text the authors develop quantum dynamics of open systems for a wide class of irreversible processes starting from the concept of completely positive semigroups. This unified approach makes the material easily accessible to non-specialists and provides an easy access to practical applications. Written for graduate students, the book presents a wealth of useful examples; in particular, models of unstable and N-level systems are treated systematically and in considerable detail including new types of generated Bloch-equations. The general theory is extensively summarized from abstract dynamical maps to those obtained by a reduction of Hamiltonian dynamics under a Markovian approximation. Various methods of determining semigroup generators and the corresponding master equations are discussed including time-dependent and nonlinear generators. Further topics treated are a generalized H-theorem, quantum detailed balance and return to equilibrium, discrete quantum Boltzmann equation, nonlinear Schrödinger equation, spin relaxation by spin waves, entropy production and its generalization by a measure of irreversibiblity.