Methods for processing of biological materials into useful products represent essential core manufacturing activities of the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. On the one hand the techniques involved include well established process engineering methodologies such as mixing, heat transfer, size modification and a variety of separatIon and fermentation procedures. In addition, new bioprocessing practices arising from the exciting recent advances in biotech nology, including innovative fermentation cell culture and enzyme based operations, are rapidly extending the frontiers of bioprocessing. These develop ments are resulting in the introduction to the market place of an awesome range of novel biological products having unique applications. Indeed, the United States Office of Technology Assessment· has concluded that 'competitive advantage in areas related to biotechnology may depend as much on developments in bioprocess engineering as on innovations in genetics, immunology and other areas of basic science'. Advances in analytical instrumentation, computerization and process automation are playing an important role in process control and optimization and in the maintenance of product quality and consistency characteristics. Bioprocessing represents the industrial practice of biotechnology and is multidisciplinary in nature, integrating the biological, chemical and engineering sciences. This book discusses the individual unit operations involved and describes a wide variety of important industrial bioprocesses. I am very grateful to Sanjay Thakur who assisted me in the collection of material for this book.