The Electron Liquid Paradigm in Condensed Matter Physics
The electron liquid paradigm is at the basis of most of our current understanding of the physical properties of electronic systems. Quite remarkably, the latter are nowadays at the intersection of the most exciting areas of science: materials science, quantum chemistry, nano-electronics, biology and quantum computation. Accordingly, its importance can hardly be overestimated. During the past 20 years the field has witnessed momentous developments, which are partly covered in this new volume. Advances in semiconductor technology have allowed the realizations of ultra-pure electron liquids whose density, unlike that of the ones spontaneously occurring in nature, can be tuned by electrical means, allowing a systematic exploration of both strongly and weakly correlated regimes. Most of these system are two- or even one-dimensional and can be coupled together in the form of multi-layers or multi-wires, opening vast observational possibilities. On the theoretical side, quantum Monte Carlo methods have allowed an essentially exact determination of the ground-state energy of the electron liquid, and have provided partial answers to the still open question of the structure of its phase diagram. Starting from the 1980s some truly revolutionary concepts have emerged, which are well represented in this volume.