This book is the outcome of an internationally attended NATO workshop, held at the University of Manchester in June 1999. This meeting focussed on the role of government scientific research laboratories in the 21st Century. The result is a compilation of representations from Western countries and the former Soviet Union, which addresses national issues of societies in transition and examines and interprets current situations. The material presented includes case-orientated papers of institutions caught between the provision of a national science base and the adoption of a market oriented approach to scientific reform. The contrast between a broad country level view and individual laboratories and between western and former Soviet states, provides a stimulating review of the changing organisation of scientific research. The book provides a unique resource for policy makers, managers of laboratories and science policy researchers.