The diversity of interconnected cultures on a bounded planet requires more shared orientations. The humanities and politics have to face fundamental questions. What does a humanism look like that does not move too rapidly to universalize the views and historical experiences of the European or American world? How can we conceive of globality as a new entity without playing unity and diversity off against one another? Does a world culture that is becoming ever closely related in fact need common values or only rules of human exchange? How can we succeed at civilizing an ever-present ethnocentrism? How do we keep the terms “culture” and “humanity” from being misused as weaponsin identity wars? Any realistic cosmopolitanism must proceed from an understanding of humankind as one entity without requiring us to re-design cultures to fit on with some sort of global template. Answers can be gained by deploying shared characteristics of humans as well as pan-cultural commonalities. This book offers an anthropologically informed foundation for addressing pertinent questions of intercultural exchange.