After his diplomatic sojourn in Syria as consul in Damascus, Richard Francis Burton (1821-90) published, in 1872, this two-volume account of nineteenth-century Syria. It is the result of collaboration with several partners with specific expertise, primarily Charles Frederick Tyrwhitt Drake (1846-74) but also Burton's wife. Throughout his life Burton immersed himself in as many different cultures as possible. His natural aptitude for languages and disguise allowed him to frequently pass himself off as a native. The two years he was consul were eventful, including local uprisings, an assassination attempt and religious strife. This work reveals the unknown and extraordinary side of Syria. Volume 2, based on extensive travels through the northern highlands and the eastern edges of the country, explores the anthropology, ancient history, archaeology and geology of these regions.