Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) emerged in the 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, respectively, as zoonotic agents that caused fatal outbreaks of respiratory and/or encephalitic illness among horses (HeV), pigs (NiV) and humans who came in contact with the infected animals. The natural reservoir for henipavirus appears to be bat species found in South-east Asia and Australia, and direct bat-to-human and human-to-human transmissions is likely responsible for annual NiV outbreaks in Bangladesh since 2000. Annual spillover events of HeV have occurred in Australia since 2006 with fatal consequences for horses and humans. HeV and NiV cause zoonotic diseases that have resulted in major socio-economic disruptions during outbreaks and spillover events. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the ecology, virology and disease pathogenesis of henipaviruses. This volume brings together a leading group of international researchers to provide up to date reviews on a holistic set of topics (Epidemiology & Ecology, Molecular Virology, Human & Animal Pathology, Diagnosis and Control) that will impact positively on the eventual control, prevention, and treatment of these zoonotic infections.