Thirty years after the identification of the disease that became known as AIDS, humanitarian organizations warn that the fight against HIV/AIDS has slowed, amid a funding shortfall and donor fatigue. In this book, Bjørn Lomborg brings together research by world-class specialist authors, a foreword by UNAIDS founding director Peter Piot and perspectives from Nobel Laureates and African civil society leaders to identify the most effective ways to tackle the pandemic across sub-Saharan Africa. There remains an alarming lack of high-quality data evaluating responses to HIV. We still know too little about what works, where and how to replicate our successes. This book offers the first comprehensive attempt by teams of authors to analyze HIV/AIDS policy choices using cost-benefit analysis, across six major topics. This approach provides a provocative fresh look at the best ways to scale up the fight against this killer epidemic.