Bernstein functions appear in various fields of mathematics, e.g. probability theory, potential theory, operator theory, functional analysis and complex analysis – often with different definitions and under different names. Among the synonyms are `Laplace exponent' instead of Bernstein function, and complete Bernstein functions are sometimes called `Pick functions', `Nevanlinna functions' or `operator monotone functions'. This monograph – now in its second revised and extended edition – offers a self-contained and unified approach to Bernstein functions and closely related function classes, bringing together old and establishing new connections. For the second edition the authors added a substantial amount of new material. As in the first edition Chapters 1 to 11 contain general material which should be accessible to non-specialists, while the later Chapters 12 to 15 are devoted to more specialized topics. An extensive list of complete Bernstein functions with their representations is provided.